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Cornell University Library 
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Briefe and true report of the new found 


3 1924 028 784 571 

Cornell University 

The original of this book is in 
the Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 

Dodd, Mead & Company's 
Facsimile Reprints of Rare Books 

Historical Series, No. I 

Hariot's "Virginia," 1588 

This Edition is limited to Five Hundred and Twenty 
Copies, of which Twenty are on Japan paper 

A Briefe and True Report of 
the New Found Land 




Thomas Hariot 

Reproduced in Facsimile from the First 
Edition of 1588 

With an Introductory Note by 
Luther S. Livingston 




1 ■■*V\ . 

/A • 6 o o f o 


Introductory Note 

THE earliest printed original book in the English 
language relating to the region now comprised 
within the limits of the United States is Thomas 
Hariot's Brief e and True Report of the New Found Land of 
Virginia, which is reproduced in facsimile on the succeed- 
ing pages, from the original quarto edition of 1588. It is 
not (as it has been called) the history of the first settle- 
ment, but is instead the report of the skilled surveyor and 
mathematician sent out with the colonists by the owners 
of the grant for the express purpose of studying the country 
and its capabilities for settlement. It was written and 
printed with the view of inducing men of capital to become 
stockholders in the corporation, and for persuading settlers 
to emigrate to the regions described, and is one of the 
earliest examples of a statistical survey on a large scale. 
Being the account of the resources of the country, and of 
its Indian inhabitants, its text is more interesting than the 
more narrative-like report of the President of the Colony 
which is printed in Hakluyt's Voyages and which, with this 
book, comprises about all that is known from first hands 
of that " First Colonic" The actual narrative of the 
Expedition prepared by Hariot himself, and which he said 
was " ready in a discourse by it self in maner of a Chronicle 
according to the course of times, and when time shall bee 
thought convenient shall be also published" is, unfortunately, 

Only seven copies of the book can be traced, and of 
these four are in public libraries. One is in the Grenville 
collection, in the British Museum, one in the Bodleian 


Introductory Note 

Library at Oxford, and one in the University of Leyden. 
A fourth is in the collection formed by the late Henry 
Huth, and a fifth is, or was, in the collection of the late 
Lord Taunton. Two copies are in America, one in the 
New York Public Library, Lenox Collection, and the 
other, the copy from which this reprint is made, in 
private hands. This copy may, with some probability, be 
called Sir Francis Drake's. It was sold at auction in 1883 
with other books from a library said to have been brought 
together by him. It is possible, however, that the collec- 
tion, as such, dates no farther back than the time of his 
nephew, who published Sir Francis Drake Revived, in 1626. 
It was bought by the late Mr. Quaritch for .£300. He 
catalogued it at ^335 and sold it, probably at that price, to 
the late Mr. Charles H. Kalbfleisch. Since the death of 
the latter it passed into the collection of Mr. Marshall C. 
Lefferts and, recently, through the hands of two book- 
sellers, into the library of Mr. E. D. Church, of New 

Few of the older bibliographers seem to have known of 
the book and the earliest bibliographical record we can find 
of it is as Number 1345 of Part IX of the Catalogue of the 
Heber Collection. This ninth part was sold on April 11, 
and thirteen following days, Sundays excepted, 1836. 

The book is described as " Fine copy, in russia." In 
addition to the transcription of the title, the catalogue 
contains this note : 

* # * Excessively rare. It is not to be traced in any Catalogue, 
and does not appear to be mentioned by any Bibliographer. It con- 
tains 24 leaves, including the Title and Dedication by Rafe Lane. 

The volume sold for ,£35 10s. 

Ternaux in 1837 entered the title in his Bibliotheque 
Jmericaine, but does not say where he obtained his informa- 
tion regarding it. 

Payne and Foss, who prepared the catalogue of the 
Grenville Collection in the British Museum printed in 
1842, enter it, curiously enough, under De Bry, instead of 

[ vi ] 

Introductory Note 

under the author's name. They add also the following 
note : 

"This forms the first part of the Voyages to the West Indies or 
Grands Voyages. Previously to its being added to the Collection it 
was separately printed in French, and verbatim from this 4to in Eng- 
lish, in Latin, and German by De Bry at Frankfort in 1590, as here- 
after described." 

They give the collation as " Signatures A to F in fours, 
twenty-four leaves." 

Bohn, in his revision of Lowndes' Bibliographer's Manual, 
follows the Grenville Catalogue exactly, and enters it under 
De Bry, and gives the same collation. These authors knew 
of only two copies, the British Museum and the Bodleian. 
Graesse enters it properly under Hariot, gives the collation 
as twenty-four leaves, and quotes the Heber Catalogue. 
He does not record any other copy. None of these authors 
points out the fact that the last leaf is blank. 

Sabin in his Bibliotheca Americana, gives the collation 
simply as " 23 leaves." He knew of three copies, the 
British Museum, Bodleian, and Lenox. He mentions 
another copy, however, as having been sold in Dublin in 
1873 " w i' n fi ye other rare pieces relating to America, for 
less than ,£25." If this is true and the copy is still in 
existence it must make an eighth copy, unless it chance that 
the Dublin copy may be the one now in the Huth collection, 
which, however, we think is the Heber copy. Brunet cites 
the book properly, taking his title from the Heber catalogue. 

Henry Stevens, in his Recollections of James Lenox, gives 
the following anecdote about the Lenox copy : 

" Mr. Lenox was principled against raffles, wagers, 
lotteries, and games of chance generally, but I once led him 
into a sort of bet in this way, by which I won from him 
.£4. I had acquired a fair copy of that gem of rare books, 
the quarto edition of Hariot's Briefe and true report of the 
new found land of Virginia, London, Feb. 1588, wanting 
four leaves in the body of the book. These I had very 
skilfully traced by Harris, transferred to stone, printed off 

[ vii ] 

Introductory Note 

on old paper of a perfect match, the book and these leaves 
sized and coloured alike, and bound in morocco by Bedford. 
The volume was then sent to Mr. Lenox to be examined 
by him de visu, the price to be £25 ; but if he could detect 
the four facsimile leaves, and would point them out to me 
without error, the price was to be reduced to .£21. By the 
first post after the book was received he remitted me the 
twenty guineas, with a list of the facsimiles. But on my 
informing him that two of his facsimiles were originals, he 
immediately remitted the four pounds and acknowledged 
his defeat." 

About 16 18 William Strachey, first secretary of the 
Jamestown Colony, prepared a Historic of Travaile into 
Virginia Britannia, which existed only in manuscript until it 
was printed by the Hakluyt Society in 1849. I* contains 
this reference to Hariot and, being by a contemporary of 
his, is worthy of insertion here. 

" Our country of Virginia hath no want of many 
marchandize (which we in England accomplish in Den- 
mark, Norway, Prusia, Poland, etc ; fetch far, and buy 
deare) which advaunce much, and assured increase, with 
lesse exchaung of our owne, with as few hazardes by sea, 
and which would maintaine as frequent and goodly a navie 
as what runs the Levant stage ; and those by divers treaties, 
both in Lattin and English, private and publique, have ben, 
in their particuler names and values oftentymes expressed, 
especyally that which hath bene published by that true lover 
of vertue and great learned professor of all arts and knowl- 
edges, Mr. Hariots, who lyved there in the tyme of the first 
colony, spake the Indian language, searcht the country, and 
made many proufes of the richness of the soyle, and 
comoditie there of." 

The first effort toward actual English colonization in 
America was the colony planned by Sir Humphrey Gilbert, 
under the Patent granted by Queen Elizabeth on June 1 ith, 
1578. This grant was for six years only, unless a colony 
should be meanwhile founded, in which case it was to be 

[ viii ] 

Introductory Note 

perpetual. Two expeditions were sent out, and possession 
was taken of a portion of the island of Newfoundland, but ' 
no settlement was established. Gilbert having gone down 
with his ship on the return voyage in 1583, his patent was 
regranted to his half-brother Walter Raleigh. This new 
patent was dated March 25th, 1584 (the first day of the 
new year), and was also limited to six years. It gave him 
license " to discover, search, find out, and view such 
remote, heathen and barbarous lands, countries, and terri- 
tories, not actually possessed of any Christian prince, nor 
inhabited by Christian people, as to him, his heires and 
assignes, and to every or any of them shall seeme good," 

Two ships were at once fitted out and the expedition, 
under the command of Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlow, 
sailed on April 27th, 1584. They reached the coast of 
Carolina in July, made some superficial examinations and 
returned to England in September. They " brought home 
also two of the Savages being lustie men, whose names 
were Wanchese and Manteo." 

The report of this first tentative expedition being favor- 
able, Raleigh made preparations to found a Colony in the 
newly discovered region. On April 9th, 1585, seven 
vessels sailed from Plymouth under the command of Sir 
Richard Grenville. They arrived safely at the island of 
Roanoke, at the north end of Pamlico Sound, where 
Amadas and Barlow had been the year before, on June 
26th. The two Indians, who had learned the white 
man's language, during their stay in England, were very 
helpful to the English in treating with the natives. Gren- 
ville himself stayed just two months and then returned to 
England, leaving a colony of one hundred and eight men, 
all of whose names are set down by Hakluyt, under the 
governorship of Ralph Lane. 

This expedition was well fitted out, and among the 
colonists were included several specialists. Thomas Hariot, 
who had already acquired fame as a mathematician, was 


Introductory Note 

surveyor and historiographer. John White, whose name is 
apparently corrupted in Hakluyt's list, into John Twit, was 
the artist of the expedition, and his portfolio of drawings is 
now in the British Museum. There was also a " mineral- 
man," or geologist, though he seems to be unidentified. 

This " first colonie " remained on the island of Roanoke 
and in the vicinity for almost an entire year, hearing mean- 
while nothing from home. On the 7th of June, 1586, 
a fleet of twenty-three sail was sighted off" the coast. At 
first it was feared that they were Spaniards, but happily it 
turned out the next day that it was the fleet of Sir Francis 
Drake, returning victorious from the sacking of rich cities 
of the Spanish colonies. He had run up to see how the 
Virginian Colony of his friend Raleigh was prospering. He 
offered to supply them with provisions, take home their 
sick, and leave " oare-men, artificers and others " in their 
place, as well as leaving them a ship with sailing masters 
competent to navigate her home, also " a supply of calievers, 
hand weapons, match and lead, tooles, apparell, and such 
like." While these arrangements were being made a Cape 
Hatteras storm came on and continued four days, doing 
more damage to Drake's fleet "than all his former most 
honourable actions against the Spaniards." The colonists 
considered this storm as the judgment of God that they 
should return at once to England, and it was so decided. 
The weather was still rough and in transferring their goods 
to the ships of the fleet the boats ran aground and the 
sailors cast overboard " all their Cards, Books and writ- 
ings." Notwithstanding this statement Hariot's diary must 
have been preserved, and John White's drawings are still in 
existence. The one hundred and four members of the 
colony, for Hariot says that only four " died all the yeere," 
were distributed among the ships of the fleet which set sail 
on the 19th of June (being just a year, lacking one week, 
since their arrival), and reached England the latter part of 
July, 1585. 

The account of Raleigh's subsequent efforts to found a 


Introductory Note 

colony on the coast of North Carolina, of the fifteen men 
left by Sir Richard Grenville in 1586, when he arrived with 
supplies and found the colonists gone, and of the " second 
colonie" of one hundred and nineteen, left in 1587 and all 
lost, may be found in Hakluyt, and, copied from him, in 
many more recent books. 

Raleigh's original Charter would have expired by limi- 
tation on the 24th of March, 1590. He had, however, 
been obliged to raise money to fit out White's expedition 
of 1589 by selling stock in his company. That "Assign- 
ment of Rights" is dated March 7, 1589. We may there- 
fore suppose, with reason, that this Report of Hariot's was 
written and printed for Raleigh to distribute among the 
friends from whom he sought aid in carrying out his schemes 
of western planting. The book was evidently privately 
printed, as it bears no name of printer or publisher, and 
was not entered at Stationers' Hall. It is, as will be seen, 
dated "February, 1588," at the end. This, according to 
our present reckoning, would be 1589, and, as the new 
year then began on March 25th, and as the title is also 
dated 1588, we may presume that the book was printed and 
ready for distribution in the early part of 1589, perhaps as 
early as the first of March. 

A word as to Hariot, the author of the book, himself. 
He was born at Oxford in 1560, and was thus only 25 
years of age when he came to Virginia. He graduated from 
Oxford February 12, 1580, and was almost immediately 
employed by Raleigh as a tutor, having been recommended 
on account of his expert knowledge of mathematics. He 
continued to be Raleigh's best friend until Raleigh's death 
on the scaffold in 16 1 8. He made the "last great dis- 
covery in the pure science of algebra " by arriving at a 
theory of the genesis of equations, and he shares with 
Galileo the honor of inventing the telescope (called by 
Hariot the " perspective truncke "), and of making impor- 
tant discoveries with that instrument. 

He died July 2, 1621, of cancer of the nose, the case, 
[ xi ] 

Introductory Note 

an important one, being described in the records, and was 
buried in the churchyard of St. Christopher, in London. 
A marble monument was erected over his grave by his 
friend, the Earl of Northumberland, the inscription on 
which has been preserved in Stow's Survey of London. 
Church and monument were destroyed in the Great Fire in 
1666. The church was rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren, 
but the monument was not restored. The old churchyard 
of St. Christopher is now the " Garden of the Bank of 
England," and there, in " the lovliest spot in all London," 
repose the bones of Virginia's first historian. 

A second edition of the Brief Report, published in 1590, 
by Theodore De Bry, of Frankfort-on-the-Main, forms 
the first part of that eminent publisher's great series of voy- 
ages. It was printed in four languages, English, French, 
German, and Latin, and was illustrated witha map and a series 
of 22 plates engraved by De Bry, " the most diligentlye 
and well that wear in my possible to doe," he says, after 
the original water-colors made in Virginia by Hariot's com- 
panion, John White, afore-mentioned. This magnificent 
folio was dedicated to Raleigh and contains, in addition to 
Hariot's Report and White's illustrations, descriptions of 
the plates, apparently by White himself, but " translated out 
of Latin into English by Richard Hackluit." By whom 
the book was translated into German does not appear. 
Perhaps it was done by De Bry himself. He says that he 
" caused yt to bee Reduced into verye Good Frenche and 
Latin by the aid of verye worshipfull frend of myne." 
From the fact that the Dedication of the edition, with 
French text is dated March 24, 1590, while that in the 
English and Latin editions is April 1, and of the German 
edition April 3, it is possible that the French edition was 
first issued. 

Another German translation forms the second part of a 
volume prepared for the press by Dr. Matthew Dresser, and 
published in Leipzig in 1598, with the title : 

" Historien vnd Bericht,/ Von dem Newlicher/ Zeit 


Introductory Note 

erfundenen Konigriech China,/ wie es nach vmbsienden, 
so zu einer rechtmessigen / Beschreibung gohoren, darumb/ 
beschaffen. / Item, Von dem auch new erfundenen/ Lande 
Virginia./" Etc. 

The only adequate account of Hariot, especially of his 
lifelong connection with Raleigh, is the Life by the late 
Henry Stevens, printed in 1885, but not published until 
1900. A great quantity of his manuscript, mostly mathe- 
matical in character, is preserved in the British Museum. 

L. S. L. 

[ xli! ] 

&3 A briefe and true re- 

port of the new foundland of Virginia: of 

the commodities there found mdtob^r ay jed t as vsdlmar- 
cftantabre 3 as,others for viftualljbiilWingand other nccefla- 
rhvferfor thofi that are ancl fbalUe the planters there\an& efthe na- 
ture and manners oftlie-iiaturall inhabitants : Difcouerecfbyihe 
EnghpXlolony there feared h Sir- RtdiaTd-GrdnuilciCtejj&r -arrfa 
yeere I j8f. whrch relhainca vAJertliegouernmentofRafe llanq Efqui- 
er, one of her MalcpSeT^^Setei^ during the/pace ofwifaemnethei :<u 
the fpeciall charge and direQIon of clie'Hottoura'ble Si R 
WALTER RALEIGH Knight, Lord Warden of 
the ftannerics j who therein Iiacft beetle fauoit- 
redaattaurhonle $hy her MaicBie and 
iierTctters patents 

Directed to the Aduenturers^auourers, 

andWelwtller 's of the aBton 3 fot the inhabi- 
ting and planting there: 

By Thomas Hano^ fcruant to the abouenamed 

Sir lyaUer^a.member of the Colmj^ani 

there implojedi/i difcottenng* 

Imprinted at London T588. 

^5 Rafe Lane one of her Maiefiies 

Squkres andGouernourofthe felony in Vtr- 
gtniaaboue mentioned for the time there 

rejident. To the gentle Reader ^ffiethaH 
bappities in the Lord, 

Lbeit (Gmtls Readier) the 
credite of the reports in this 
treaiife contained, canlittk 
be furthered by the teftimo- 
afft&lion iudged partially 
though without defert:Ne~ 
tterthelejfefirfomuch aslhaue beene requeued by fame 
my particular friends, who conceiue more rightly of 
mejto dehuer freely my knowledge oftbeftme$ notonely 
forthepttisfying of them, but alfifor the true enforma* 
tion of ante other whofbeuer, that comes not with apre- 
iudicate minae to the reading thereof Thus much vpon 
my credit Jamto affirme: ihat things vniuerfally are 
Jo tmclyjetdowne in this treatije by the author therof 
mAUorinthe feolonyf£a,manmkff for his hone fy 

aAz then 

thenlearmngcommendabhas that I dare holdely a~ 

uouchitmayyerywell^affewiththecreait of truthe- 

wnammgflthemofltrue relates of this ageWhiehas 

fir mine own part lam readieanywaywith rny word 

Toacknowkdge,JoalJo (ofthecertainttethenofaffmed 

hymine owne experience) with this myfiub- 

Ukg ajjertton, I doe affirms the fame. 

Farewell in the Larde, 

^ To the Aduenturers, Fauourers, 

andWdmllersofthe enter f rife for the inha- 
biting asd planting in Virginia. 

Ince the firft vndertaking hy 
Sir Walter Raleigh to deale 
in the a&ion of difcouering 
of that Countrcy which is 
now called and known by the 
name of PHrginkt-, many voy- 
ages hauing bin thither made 
atfundrie times to his great 
charge; as firft in theyeere 
x.584» and afterwardes in the yeeres 1585, ,15 8 6 3 and 
now oflare this laftyeareof 1 587: There hauebindi* 
trers and variable reporteswith fomc flaunderous and 
fhamefull Speeches bruited abroade by many that retur* 
ncd from thence. Especially of that difcouery which 
was made by the Colony tranfported by Sir' Richarci 
Greinuile inthe ycare 1585, being of all the others the 
moft principal and as yer of mo'ft effe&jthe time of their 
abode hi the countrcy beeing a whole yeare, when as in 
the other voyage before they ftaied but fixe weekes; and 
the others after were onelieforfupply andtranfpdrta- 
tion, nothing more being difcoucred then had been be- 
fore, Whichreports haue nor done a lisle wrong to ma.- 

A.3. " ny 

nAbriefeandtrue report 

ny that otherwife would haue alfb fauoured & aduentn- 
red in the a&ion, to the honour and benefice of our na- 
tion, befides the particular profice and credite which 
would redound to themfelues the dealers therein; as I 
hope by the fequele of euents to the fhame of thofe that 
hauc auouched the contrary fhalbe manifeft .• ify ou the 
aduenturers,fauourers,and welwillcrsdo but either en- 
creafe in number , or in opinion continue, or hauing bin 
doubtfull rencwe your good liking and furtherance to 
deale therein according to the worthineffe thereof al- 
ready e found and as you (ball vnderftand hereafter to 
be requifite. Touching whic h woorthincs through 
caufe of the diuerfitie of relations and rcportcs,ma- 
nye of your opinions coulde not bee Heme , nor the 
mindes of forae that are well difpofed,bee (ededina- 

I haue therefore thought it good beeing one 
that haue bcene in the difcouerie and in dealing with 
thcnaturall inhabitantes fpecially imploied 5 and ha- 
uing therefore feene and knowne more then the or- 
dinance to imparte fo much vnto you of the fruites 
of our labours , as that you may knowe howe iniuri- 
oufly the enterprifeis (laundered . And that in pub- 
like manner at this prefentchiefclie for two rcfpe&es. 
Firft thatfbme of you which are yet ignorant or 
doubtfull of the ftate thereof, may fee that there is 
fufficient caule why the cheefe enterprifer with the 
fauour of her Maieflie , notwithstanding fuche re* 
porcesj hath not onelie fince continued thea&ion by 
fending into the countrey againe, and replanting this 
laftyeereanewColonyibutis alforcadie, according as 
the times and tneanes will affoorde, to follow and pro- 
fecute the fame. 


of the new found land of 'Virginia. 

Secondly, that you feeing and knowingthe continu- 
ance of the a&ion by the view hereof you may generally 
know & learne what thecountrey is, & thervpon confi- 
der how your dealing therein if it proceede, may returnc 
you profit and gainej bee it cither by inhabiting Si plan- 
tmg or otherwise in furthering thereof, 

And leaft that the fubltance of my relation fhould be 
doubtful vnto you,as of others by reafon of their diuerfi- 
tie : I will firft open the caufe in a few wordes wherefore 
they are fodifferenti referring my felfe to your fauoura- 
b!e cOnf tru6tions,and to be adiudged of as by good con-i 
fideration you fhali finde caufe. 

Of our companie that returned fbme fbr their mifde- 
xnenour and ill dealing in the countrey , haue beenc 
fchere worthily punifhed; who by reafon of their baddc 
natures', haue malicioufly not onelie fpoken ill of 
their Gouernours; but for their fakes (laundered the 
countrie it felfe. The like alfo haue thofe done which 
were of their confort. 

Somebceing ignorant of the ftatethereof 3 notwith- 
ftanding fiuce their returne amongefl their friendes and 
acquaintance and alfo others, efpecially if they were in 
companie where they might not be gainefaide j woulde 
feemetoknowe fo much as no men more, and make 
no men fo great trauailers as themfelues . They flood 
lb much as it maie feeme vppon their credite and re- 
putation that hauing been a twelue m,oneth in the coun- 
trey } it wouldehaue heene a great difgrace vnto them as 
theythought, iftheycouldenot h aue (aide much whe- 
therit were true or falfe. Of which fome haue fpoken of 
more then euer they faw or othcrwifc knew to bee there} 
otherfome haue not bin afhamedto make abfolute deni- 
allof that which although not by them, yet by others 

A4 is 

sdbriefe and true report 

is mod certainety and there plentifully knowne. And o- 
therfome make difficulties of thofe things they haue ng 
(kill of. 

The caufe of their ignorance was ,in that they were of 
that many that were neueroutof the Hand where wee 
werefeated,ornotfarre,oratthe leaftwifein few places 
els, during the time of ouraboadein thecountreyjorof 
that many that after golde and filuer was not fo fooue 
found, as it was by them looked for, had little or no care 
of any other thing but to pamper their belliesj or of that 
many which had little vnderftanding,Iefle difcretion, 
and more tongue then was needfull or requifite. 

Some alfo were of a nice bringing vp,only in cities or 
cownes, or fiich as neuerfas I mayfay,) had feenethc 
world before. Becaufe there were not to bee found any 
Englifh cities, nor fuch faire houfcs,nor at their owne 
with any of their olde accuftomed daintie food, norany 
foft beds of downe or fetherss the countrey was to them 
miferable,& their reports thereof according. 

Becaufe my purpofe was but in briefe to open the 
caufe of the varietie of fucb fpeechesithe particularities 
of them,andof many enuious, malicious, and flaunde- 
rous reports and deuifes els, by our owne countrey men* 
befidess as trifles that are not worthy of wife men to bee 
thought vpon, I meane not to trouble youwithall : but 
willpafTe to the commodities , the fiibftance of that 
which I haue to make relation of vntoyou. 

The treatife whereof for your more readie view&ea> 
fiervnderftandingIwilldiuide into three fpeciall parts. 
In the firft I will make declaration of fuch commodities 
there alrcadie found or to be raifed, which will notonely 
ferue the ordinary turnes of you which are and fhall bee 
the planters and inhabitants, butfuchanouerplus firffi.- 


of the newfound land of Virginia, 

cicntly to bee yelded, or by men of skill to bee prouidedj 
as by way of trafficke and exchaunge with our owne na- 
tion of England, will enrich your ielues the prouiders, 
thofe that (rial deal with youj the entcrprifers in general; 
and greatly profit our owne countrey men ,to fupply the 
with moft things which heretofore they haue bene fainc 
to prouidceitherofftrangers or of our enemies : which 
commodities for diftindtion fake, I call Merchantable. 

In the fecond,Iwill fetdowne all the commodities 
which wee know the countrey by our experience doeth 
yeldof it felfefor vi<9:uall,andiufl:enancc of mans life; 
fuch as is vfually fed vpo by the inhabitants of the coun- 
trey, as alio by vs during the time we were there. 

In the laft part I will make mention generally of fiich 
other commodities befides,asl am able to remember, 
andaslfhall thinkebehoofuUfor thofe that fhallinha- 
bite,and plant there to knoweof, which fpecially con- 
cerne building, as alio lome other neceflary vies : with a 
briefedefcriptionofthe nature and maners of the peo- 
ple of the countrey. 

The firftpart of Merchantable 


like ofgrafle orgrajfe Silke. There is a kind of 
grafle in the countrey vppon the blades 
whereof there groweth very good filkein 
forme of a thin glittering fkin to bee ftript 
of It groweth two foote and a halfe high or 
better : the blades are about two foot in length, and half 
inch broad. The like groweth in Pcrfia, which is in the 
felfe fame climate as Vtroiniaxfi which very many of the 

B Hike 

Abriefc mil true report 

dike worfces that come from thence into Europe are 
made. Hereofifit be planted and ordered as inPerfia^k 
cannot in reafon be otherwife, but that there will rife in 
fhorte time great proflte to the dealers therein* feeing 
there is fo great vfe and ventthereofas wellin our court- 
trey as els where. And by the meanes of fowing & plan- 
ting it in good ground 3 it will be farre greater ,better,and 
more plentifull then it is. Although notwithftanding 
chereisgreat ftore thereof in many places of the coun- 
trey growing naturally and wilde. Which alfo by proof 
here in EngJand^n making a piece of fdke Grogran, we 
found to be excellent good. 

worme Silks • In manie of our iourneyes we found filkc 
wormes fayre and great? as biggeas our ordinary wal- 
nuttes. Although ithathnotbeeneour happe to hauc 
found fuch plentie as elfewhere to be in the countrey we 
hauc heard of] yet feeing that the countrey doth natural- 
ly breede and nouri fh them.there is no doubt but if art be 
added in planting of mulbery trees and others fittefor 
them in commodious places /or their feeding and nou- 
rifhing; and fome of them carefully gatheredand huk 
banded in that fort as by men of skill is knowne to be ne- 
ceffarie : there will rife as great proflte in time to the Vbr* 
giaians, as thereof doth now to the Perfians,Turkes 3 Ita- 
lians and Spaniards. 

F/axeaud Hemfe: The trueth is that of Hempe and 
Flaxe there isno great ftore in any one place together, 
by reafon it is not planted but as the foile doth yeeld it of 
itfelfejandhowfoeuer the Ieafe,and ftemme or ftaJkc 
doe differ from ours-, the ftuffe by the iudgeraet of men 
of skill is altogether as good as ours. And if not,as fur- 
ther proofefhould finde otherwife; we haue that expe- 
rience of the foile, as that there cannot bee (hewed anic 


of the newfoundlandofVirginia. 

rcafbn to die contrary ,but that it will grow there excel* 
lent well; and by planting will be yeelded plentifuHy:fec- 
ing there is fo much ground whereof fame may well be 
applyedtofuchpurpofes. What benefite heereofmay 
growe in cordage and linnens who can not eafily vn- 

Allum: There is aveineof earth along the fea coaft 
for the fpace of fourtie or fif tie miles, whereof by the 
iudgement of fame that haue made triall heere in En- 
gland, is made good ^//»/w,ofthatkinde which is called 
Roche AUttm. The richnefTeof fuch a commoditie is fo 
welllcnowne that I needenottofayeany thing thereof 
The fame earth doth alfbyeelde white Coprefe, Nhrtm > 
and AlumeHf[ttmeum 9 but nothing fo plentifully as the 
common Allum; which be alfo of price and profitable. 
tpkpeib 9 a kinde of earth fo called by the naturall in- 
habitant^ very like to terra Sigillata: and hauing beene 
refined, it hath beene found by fome of our Phifitions 
and Chirurgeons to bee of the fame kinde of verrue and 
more effe£fcuall.The inhabitants vfe it very much for the 
cure of for es and woundes : there is in diuers places great 
plentie, and in fbme places of a blewe jbrt. 

Pitch) Torre 9 Roz,e» 3 and Turpentine : There are thofe 
Idndes of trees which yeelde them abundantly and great 
ftore. In the very fame Hand where wee were feated, be- 
ing fifteene miles of length, and fiue or fixe miles in 
breadth, there arefewe trees els but of the famekind; the 
whole Hand being full, 

£^fcw,calledbytheinhabitantes tvtnaul^ a kinde of 
woodof moft pleafant and fweete fmel; and of moft rare 
vertuesin phifickfor the cure of many is foiid 
by experience to bee farfe better and of morevfes theft 
the wood which is called Gmiamnfi or Ugttm mm* Fot 

B i. the 

A brie fe and true report 

the defcription, the manner of vfing and the manifolde 
vertues thereof, I referreyou to the booke of Mow* 
<&*, translated and entituJed in Englifti,7&* iojfull nevtes 
Jrom the Weft Indies, 

Cedar ^ very fweetwood & fine timber; wherof if nefts 
of cherts be there made,or timber therof fitted for fweet 
& fine bedfteadsjtablesjdeskes, lutes, virginalles& ma- 
ny things elfe,(of which there hath beene proofe made 
already Jto make vp fraite with other principal commo- 
dities will yeeld profite. are two kinds of grapes that the foile doth 
yeeld naturally: the one is frnall and fowre of the ordina- 
rie bignelTe as ours in England.- the other farre greater & 
ofhimfelfe lufhious fvveet. When they are planted and 
husbanded as they ought, a principal commoditie o£ 
wines by them mayberaifed. 

Oyle • There are two fortes of Walnmtes both holding 
oyle, but the one farre more plentifull then the other. 
"When there are milles & other deuifes for the purpofe, 
a commodity of them may beraifed becaufe there are 
infinite ftore. There are alfo three feuerall kindes of 
Perries in the forme of Oke akornes , which alfo by 
the experience and vfe of the inhabitantes, wee findeto 
yeelde very good and fweete oyle. Furthermore the 
Bearesof the countrey are commonly very fette, and in 
fome places there are many : their fatnefle becaufe it is fo 
liquid, may well be termed oyle, and hath many fpeciall 

Furrei : All along the Sea coaft there are great ftore 
of Otters , which beeyng taken by weares and otheren- 
gines made for the purpofe , will yeelde good profite. 
Wee hope alfo oiMarteme funes , and make no doubt 
by the relation of the people but that in fome places 


of the newfottndlandofVirginia. 

of the countrcy there are ftore : although there were 
but two fkinnes that came to our handes .. Luzerne* 
alfo we haue vnderftandingofjalthoughfor thetime we 
law none. 

Dearejki»»et drefled after the manner dichamoes or 
vndreffed aretobehadofthenaturall inhabitants thou- 
fands yeerely by way of trafficke for trifles: and no more 
waft or fpoyle of Deare then is and hath beene ordinari- 
ly in time before. 

duet canes : In our trauailes, there was founde one to 
haue beene killed by a faluage or inhabitant: and in an o- 
ther place the fmeH where one or more had lately beene 
before : whereby we gatfter befides then by the relation 
of the people that there are fbme in the countrey: good 
profite will rife by them. 

hon : In two places of the countrey fpecially, one 
about fourefcore and the. other fixe fcqre miles from, 
the Fort orplace where wee dwelt : wee founde neerc 
the water fide the ground to be rockie,which by the trL- 
all of jh minerall man , was founde to holde yron 
richly. It is founde in manie places of the countrcy 
elfe . I knowe nothing to the contrarie , but that it 
male bee allowed.fbr a good marchantable commo- 
ditie , confidering there the fmall charge for the la- 
bour and feeding of men : the infinite ftore of wood: 
the want of wood and deereneile thereof in England : & 
the necefttty ofballafting of fliippes. 

Copper: A hundred and fiftie miles into themainc in 
two townes wee founde with the inhabitaunts diuerfe 
fmall plates of copper, that had beene made as wee vn- 
derftood , by the inhabitantes that dwell farther into 
die countrey : where as they fay aremountaines and 

B'j, riuers 

A briefeandtme report 

Riucrs that ycelde alfo whyte grayncs of Mettall , 
which is to bee deemed Siluer. For confirmation where- 
of at the time of our firft arriuall in the Counrrey, I 
fawe with fbmc others with mee, two fmall peeces of 
filuer grofly beaten about the weight of a Teflrone, 
hang)mg in the eares of a mroans or cfoefe Lorde that 
dwelt about fourefcore myles from vs; of whom tho- 
rowc enquiry, by the number of dayes and the way, I 
learned that it had come to his handes from the fame 
place or neere, where I after vnderfrood the copper was 
made and the white graynes of mettall founde. The 
aforefaide copper wee alfo founde by triall to holde fil- 

Pearle : Sometimes in feeding on mufcles wee founde 
fomepearlejbut it was our bap to meete with ragges, 
or of a pide colour ; not hauing yet difcouered thofe 
places where wee hearde of better and more plentie. 
One of our companies a man of skill in fuch matters, 
had gathered together from among the fauage peo- 
ple aboute>fiue thoufande: of which number lie chofc 
lb many as made a fayre chaine, which for their Iike- 
nefle and vniformitie in roundnefle, oricntnefTe , and 
pideneffeof many excellent colours, with equalitie in] 
greatnefle , were verie fayre and rare; and had there- 
fore beenc prefented to her Maieftie, had wee not by 
cafualtie and through extremity ofaftorme, loft them 
with many things els in comming away from the coun- 

Svetete Gummes of diuers kindesand many other A- 
pothecary drugges of which wee will make fpeciall 
mention , when wee fhall receiue it from firch men 
of skin in that kyndj that in taking reafonable paineS 


of the rtewfoundlandof Virginia. 

fhall difcouer them more particularly then wee hauc 
done; and than now I can make relation of, for want 
of the examples I had prouided and gathered, and are 
nowc loft, with other rhinges by caufualtie before men- 

Dyes of diners ki»des : There IS Shoemake well kno- 
wen, and vfed in England for blackc ; the fcede of an 
hearbe called tvasewiwr^ little fmall rootes called Chap-, 
f aeor j and the barke of the tree called by the inhabk 
taunts T*r>goynockominAgi .- which Dies are for diners 
fortes of red : their goodneffe for our Englifh clothes 
remayne yet to be proued. The inhabitants vfethem 
onely for the dying of hayre i and colouring of their 
faces , and Mantles made of Deare skinnes ; and alfo 
forthc dying of Rufhesto makeartificiallworkeswith- 
all in their Mattes and Baskettesj hauing no other 
thing befides that they account of, apt to vfe them 
for. If they-wojl not proue merchantjble*b27e~fr no 
doubt but the Planters jthere (haJHihde apte vfes for 
them, as alfo for other colours which weeknowe to be 

eWfjathingof fo great vent and vfe amongft Eng- 
lifh Diers, which cannot bee yeelded our 
owne countrey for fpare of grounds may bee planted in 
Virginia fhext being ground enough. The grouth therof 
need not to be doubted ,when as in the llandes of the A- 
fdres it groweth plentifully ,which is in the fame climate. 
So likewise of Madder. 

We carried thither Suger canes to plant which beeing 
not (o well preferued as was requifit, & befides the time 
of the yere being paft for their letting when we arriued, 
wee could not make that proofe of them as wee defired. 


Abriefi andtrue report 

Notwithftandingjfceing that they grow in the fame cli- 
mate, in the South part of Spaineand inBarbary,our 
hope in reafbn may yet cotinue. So likewife for Orenges^ 
and LemmoHs: there may be planted alfo Qut»fe s , Wher- 
by may grow in reafbnable time if the actio be diligent- 
ly profecutcd, no fmall commodities in SugerSySticketSj 
and Marmalades. 

Many other commodities by planting may there alfo 
bee railed, which I leaue to your difcret and gentle con- 
fiderations : and many alfo bee there which yetwehaue 
notdifcouered. Two jnore commodities of great value 
one of certaintie, and the other in hope, not to be plan- 
ted,but there to be raifed & in fhort time to be prouided 
and prepared, I might haue fpecified. So likewife of 
thofe commodities already fet downc I might haue faid 
more; as of the particular places where they arefoundc 
and belt to be planted and prepared: by what meanes 
and in what reafbnable fpace of time they might bcrai- 
fed to profit and in what proportions but becaufe others 
then welwillers might bee therewithal! acquainted, 
not to the good of the action, I haue wittingly omitted 
them : knowing that to thofe that are well difpofed I 
hane vttered, according to my promife and purpofe,for 
this part fufficient* 


The fecond part of fiiche commodities 

as Virginia is Kncewne toyeeldefor viftuatt andfe- 
ftenance of mans life, vfually fed vpon by the 

naturallinhabitants : as al[o by vs during the 
time ofouraboad. And fir ft of filth as are 
[owed and httjbanded. 

ufgatowr, akinde of graine fb called by 
the inhabitants ; the fame in the Weil 
Indies'is called May&e : Englifh men 
'-pall ViXJuinneywhtAte or Tttrkie wheate i 
according to the names of thecoun- 
treys from whence the v like hath beene 
brought, The graine is about the bignefle of our ordi- 
nary Englifh peaze and not much different ra forme and 
fhape: but of diuers colours : fome white jfome red,fbme 
yello'vy,andfome blew. All of them yeeldea very white 
andiweete flpwre : freeing vfed according to his kindeic 
raaketh a very good bread.Wee made of the fame in the 
countrey (bme mault, whereof was brued as good ale as 
was to bee defired. So likewife by the help of hops ther- 
of may bee made as good Beere. It is a graine of maruei- 
lous great tricreafejof a thoufand 3 fifteene hundred and 
(bme two thoufand fold. There are three forte$;of which 
two are ripe in an eleuen and twelue weekes at the mofU 
lometimes in ten jafter the time they are fet,and are then 
ofheight in ftalke about fixe or feuen foote. The other 
fortisripeinfourteene', andisaboutten fbote frigh; of 
jhe ftalkes'fbmebearc foure heads,- fome three, fome 
one,and two : eueiy head containing fiue, fixe, or feuen 
hundred gtaines within a.fewe more or; lefle.Oftlicfc 
Raines befides bread, the inhabitants make vicluall eyr- 
* C ther 

Mriefc andtrwreport 

therby parching them; or teething them whole yntill 
they be broken; or boyling the floure with water into a 

Okindg /^called by vs Beams , becaufe in greatneile & 
partly in thape they are like to the Beanes in Englandjfa- 
uingthat they are flatter, of more diuers colours, and 
fbmepide. Theleafealfoof theftemme is much diffe- 
rent. In taftejthey are altogether as good as our Englifti 

fyickonxiom^caMed by vs Pw^'n refpec"t of the beanes 
for diftin£tiofake,becaufe they are muchleflejalthough 
in forme they little differ but in goodnefTe of taft much, 
& are far better then our Englifti peazcBoth the beanes 
and peaze are ripe in tenne weekes after they are fct. 
They make them vi&uall either by boyling them all to 
pieces into abroth ; or boiling them whole vritill they 
bee foftand beginne tobreake as is vied in England, ey, 
ther by themfelues ormixtly together : Sometime they 
mingle of the wheate with them. Sometime alfo beeing 
whole fodden,they brufe or pound them in a morter, & 
thereof make loaues or lumps of dowiftie bread which 
they vie to eat for varietie. 

Maneuver, according to their fcuerall formes called 
by vSiPomp/exj, Millions, and Gourdes, becaufe they arc 
of the like formes as thofe kindes in England. In VirgMa 
fuch of fcuerall formes are of onetafte and very good, 
and do alfo fpringfrom one feed.There are of two forts; 
one is ripe in the fpace of a moneth,and the other in two 

There is anhearbe which in Dutch is called Mttitm. 
Some of thofethat I defcribe it vnto,take it to be a kinde 
of Orage; it gro weth about foure or Hue foote high : of 
the fcede thereof they make a thicke broth, and pottage 


of the newfound lAndofVitginia. 

of a veiy.good taftc : of the flalkc by burning into afhes 
they make a kindeof fait earth, wherewithaTi many'vfe 
fometimes to feafbn their brothes ; other falte, they 
knpwe not. Wee pur (Hues yfed theleauesalfofocpot- 

There is alfb another great hearbe in forme of a Ma- 
pgolde, about fixe footein heights the head with the 
floure \s z fpanne in brea dth . Some take it to bee Plant a 
Salts: of thefeedes heereof they make both a kinde of 
feread and broth: 

All the aforefaide commodities for vi&uall are fet or 
lowed, fometimes in groundes a part and feuerally by 
thefeluess but for the moft part together in one ground 
mixtly : the manner thereof with the dreifing and prepa- 
ring oftbeground,becaufe I will fiotevntt^ou the fer-j 
tiL'tie ofthe foile; I thinke good briefly to defcribe^ 

The gr6und they neuer fattenWithmucke,dounge on 
any other things neither plow nor diggeit as we in Eng- 
land, but onely prepare it in fort as follbweth. A fewe 
daies before they fbwe or fet, the men with wooden in- 
ftroraents, madealmoftin forme of mattockes or hoes 
with long handle's? the women with fhort peckers or pa r 
rers jbecaufe they vie them fittirig,of a foote long and a- 
bout flue inches in breadth : doe onely breake the vpper 
part ofthe ground to rayfe vp the weedes, grafle, & old 
ftubbes of corne ftalkes with their robtes.The which af- 
ter a day or twoes drying in the Sunne,beingfcraptevp. 
into many fmall heapes,to faiic them labour foacarrying 
them away ; they burne into. afhes, ( And whereas" 
fome may thinke that they vfe the afhes for to bet- 
ter the grounde; I fay tha$ then they woulde cyther 
difperfe the afhes abroade; which wee obferued they 
doe nor, except the heapes bee too great : or els would 

C 2. take 

aAhnefeAndtrm report 

takelpeciall care tofet their eornc where the afhcslfe* 
which alio wee findethey are.carele{le of J; And this is 
all the htif Sanding of their ground that they vTc 

Then th eir fetting or fowing is after this maner. Firft 
for their .corne, beginning in one corner of the plot, 
with a pecker they make a hole, wherein they put loute 
graines with that care they touch not one another, (ar 
bout an inch afunderjandcouec them with the raoulde 
againe : andfo throughout the'whole plot,makirig{uch 
holes and vfing them after fuchmaner : but with thiste- 
gaf d that they bee made in rankes, cuery ranke differing, 
fromotherhalfeafadomeor a yarde, and the holes alfo 
in euery rauke, as much. By this meanes there is ayarde 
fpare ground betweneeuery hole : where according to 
dif cretion here and there^ they let as manyBekries and 
Peaze: in diuers places alfo among .the feedes of Mk- 

coceftoer Melden and Plant a foils. 

The ground being thus fet according to the rate by 
vs experimented, an Englifh, Acre conteining fouttie 
pearchesin length, andfourein breadth , doeth there 
yeeld in croppe or ofcomeofcorne,beanes, and peaze, 
at theleaft two hundred London bufhelles: befides the 
Macon^vrer^MeldeH^znA Plantafolis: Whenas in Eng- 
land fourtie blifhdies of our wheatc yeelded out of fuch 
an acre is thought to be much. 

•I thought alfo good to note this vnto you,^ you which 
ftiall inhabite and_plant there, maie know how fpecially 
that countrey corne is there to beprcFerred before ours: 
Befides the manifold waies in applying it to vi&uall, the 
incrcafe is fo much that fmall labour and paines is need* 
ful in refpe6*t that muft be vfed for ours. For this I can af- 
furcyou that according to the rate we haue made proofs 
of,one man may prepare and hufband fo much grounde 


ofthe newfound land of Virginia. 

(hairing once borne corne before) with leffe then foure 
and twentie houres labour (hall yeelde him vi&uall in 
tilarge proportion for a twelue moneth, if hee haueno- 
thingelfejbutthat which the fame ground will yeelde, 
andofthatkindeoneliewhichl haue before fpoken of: 
the faide ground being alfo but of fiue and twentie yards 
fquare. And if neede require, but that there is ground e- 
nough,there might be raifed out of oneand the felffarrtc 
ground two harueftes or ofcomes-j for theyfowe or fet 
and may at anie time when they thinke good from the 
middeft of March vnrilltheendeof Iune: fo that they 
alfb fet when they haue eaten of their firft croppe . In 
fdme places of the countrey notwithftandingthey haue 
two wehaueheard 3 outofoneand the fame 

For English corne neuertheles whether tovfe or not 
to, you that" inhabite maie do as you fhall haue far-, 
ther caufe to thinke beft. Ofthe grouth you need not to 
•doubt; for barlie, oatesandpeaze,wehaue feene proof 
of s not beeing purpofely fowen but fallen eafually in the 
worftfort of ground jand yet to be as faire as any we haue 
euer feene here in England. But of wheat becaofcitwas 
mufty and had taken fait water wee could make rrdtriall: 
and ofrye we had none. Thus 'much haue I digrefc 
fedandlhopenotvnnecefTarily: nowewill I j^turne a- 
gaine to my courfe and intreate of that which yet remai- 
ueth appertaining to this Chapter, 

There is an herbe which is lowed a partby it felfe & 
iscalledbytheinhabitants^oVoc.-Inthe Weft Indies 
it hath diuers names, according tothe feuerall places & 
countries where it groweth and fevfed: The Spaniardes. 
generally £all it Tobacco. Theleanesthereofbeing dried 
and brought into powder : they vfe to takethefume or, 

C 3. {moke 

sA briefe#ndtrut report 

ftiolce thereof by fucking it through pipes madeofclaic 
into their ftomaek'c and heade;from whence it Juirgcth 
Superfluous fleame pother grofle humors.dpeneth aH 
the pores& which meanes the' 
vfe thereof.notonly pf eferueth the body from obftrudti* 
ons^but alfb if any be,fb that they haue not beene of too 
long continuance,in fhort time breakcth them : wherby 
their bodies are notablypreferued in healthy know not 
many greeuoiis difeafeS wherewjthall wee in England 
are oftentimes afflicted. 

This ftpomc is of fo precious eftimationamongeft 
the,that they thinke their ^ods are marueloufly deligh- 
ted therwith : Wherupon f bmetime they make hallowed 
fires & caft fome of the pouder therein for a facrifice;be- 
ingin a ftorme vppon the waters, to pacifie their gocls, 
they caft fome vp' into the aire and into the water :fo a 
wcare for fifh bein&newly fetvp ,they caft fome therein 
and into the aireralfo after an efcape of danger,they caft 
fome into the aire likewiferbut all done with ftrange ge- 
stures jftampingjfomtime dauncing,clapping of hands, 
holding vp of hands, & flaring vp into the heaues,vtte^ 
ring therewithal and chattering ftrange words 8c nohes. 

"We our fellies during the time we were there vfedto 
flick it after their maner,as alfb fince our returne,& haue 
found manie rare and wonderful experiments of the ver- 
tues thereof; of which the relation woulde require a vo- 
lume by it felfe.- the vfe of it by fo manie of late, men & 
women of great calling as elfe, and fome learned Phifiti- 
ons alfbjis fufficient witnes. 

And thefeare all the commodities for fuftenancc of 
life that Iknow and can remember they vfe to husband: 
all.elfe that followe are founde growing naturally or 


of the newfound lan&ofVirginia. 

Per/aukjLtc a kind of roots of round fotme/ome of 
the bignes ofwalnuts,fomefargreater,which are 
found in moift & mari fh grounds growing many 
together one by another in ropes 5 or as thogh they were 
faftnened with a firing. Being boiled or fbdden they are 
very good meate. 

Okeepenattkjuce alfb of roiid fhape,found indry grouds: 
fome are of the bignes of a mans hcad.They are to be ea- 
ten as they are taken out of the ground, for by reafon o£ 
their drinefle they will neither rofte nor feeth. Their tail 
Is not Co good as of the former rootes, notwithstanding 
for want of bread & foretimes for varietie the inbabitats 
vfe to eate them with fi(h of flefh, my lodgement 
they doe as well as thtfhouftioJd bread made of lie heerc 
in England, 

Kai(hucpenatik„ a white kind of roots about the bignes of 
lien egs & nere of that forme : their taft was not io good 
to our teeming as o/theother 3 and therfore their place 
and mannet<if growing notfb much cared for by vs:the 
inhabitants notwithftanding vfed to boile & eate many. 
TftHaw a kind of robte much like vnto y which in Eng- 
land is called the Cbma root brought from the Eaft Indies* 
And we know notanie thing to the contrary but that it 
rnaie be ofthefaniekind.Thefe roots grow manie toge- 
ther in great clutters and doe bring foorth a brier ftalke, 
burtheleafein fhapefar vnlikej which beeingfupported 
by the trees it gro weth neerett vnto 3 wil reach or climbe 
to the top of the higheft.From thefe roots while they be 
new orfrefh beemg choptinto finaH pieces & ftampt, is 
ftrained.with water a iuice that maketh bread 3 & alfo be- 
ing boiled a verygood fpoonemeate in mancr ofa gelly, 
and ismuch better imail'if it bee tempered with oyle. 

C-4* This 

This T^WsflOtofthatJort which by fomewascaufed 
difcoueredfince 3 and is in vfc as is aforeiaide: but 1 that 
which was brought hither is not yet knbwne neither by 
vs nor by the inhabitants to feruefor any vie or purpofej 
although tfierootesin fhapeare very like. 

Cofcufhm^ fbme of our company, tooke to bee that 
kinde of roote which the'Spaniards in the Weft Indies 
call C^^whereupon alfo many called it by that name: 
itgrowethinverymuddie pooles and moift groundes. 
Being dreiled according to the countrey maner 3 it ma- 
Jketh a good bread ,and alio a good fponemeate, and is' v- 
fed very much by the inhabitants : The iuice-ofthisjooc 
is poifon,and therefore heedemufl; be taken before any 
thing be made therewithal! jEither the rootes muflfbee 
firftfliced and dried in the Sunne 3 or bythefirei and 
then beingpounded into flourewil make good bread:or 
els while they are greene they are to bee paredycut idt6 
pieces and ftampt; loues of thefame to be laid neere or 
ouer the fire vntill it be fqurejand then beingwell poun- 
ded againe^bread jOr Ipone meatc very god in tafte,arid ' 
holfome may be made thereof. 

Habafconisz. roote of hoat tafte almoftof theibrme 
and bignefle of aParfeneepe, of it felfe it is no vi&uall, 
but onely a hclpe beeing boiled together with o£hec 

There are alfo Leekgs differing littlefrom ours in Eng- 
land that grow in many places of the coutrey ? of which, 
when we came in places where they were, wee gathered 
and eate manyjbiit the natural! inhabitants neuer. 


of the Newfoundland of Virginia, 


CHeftmttsjhett are in diners places great ftore:fbmc 
they vfe to eaterawe.fomc they ftampe and boile 
to make fpoonemeate, and with fome being fbdde 
they make fiichanianncr of dowe bread as they vfe of 
*heirbeanes before mentioned. 

' walnuts : There arc two kindes of Walnuts 3 and ofthe 
infinit ftorerln many places where very great woods for 
matiy miles together the third part of trees are wahiut> 
trees. The one kind is ofthe fame tafte and forme or litle 
differing from .outs of England, but that they are harder 
ahdjthicker fhelled-: the other is greater and hath a verie 
raggedaridharde fhell : butthc kernellgreat, verie oy- 
lie and fweete •. Befides their eating of them after 
Ourordiiiafierrianer, they breake them withftones and 
$>ound them in morters with water to make a milk which 
theyvfeto put into fome forts of their fpoonmeate; alfb 
among their fbdde whc^t 3 peaze,beanes andpompions 
which maketh them haue a farre more pleafant tafte. 

Medlars a kind of verie good fruit,lb called by vs chief- 
lie for thcferefpeftestfirflinthatthey are not good vn- 
ttll they be rotten: then in that they open at the head as 
our medlars,and are about the fame bignefle : otherwife 
in tafte and coiourthcy are farre different: for they are 
4s red as cheries and very fweet : but whereas the cheric 
is fharpe fweet,they arc lufhious fweet, 

MittijiHefuxHafilLj&kindc of • pleafauritffruite alrhbftof 
thefhape &bignesofEnglifhpeares, but thatthey.are 
of a perfect red colouras well within as without. They 
grow on a plant whofe leaues are verie jthicke and full of 
prickles as (harpe as.' needles,: Somcthat hauebinin the 
Indies, where they hat* c ifecn that land ofxed die of great 

D price 


price which is called CaeMulfeii «jgrow, doc deicribe his 
plant righrlike vnto this tJFMepaqaefuvxauk hut whether 
it be thttnie-cocbftofc otabalffordcjr wjldekindiit cannot 
yet be certified;feeing that alfoas 3rheard, CochmiU is not 
ofrhe fruite but founde on the leaues of the piantjwhich 
ieaues for fuch matter we haue not fofpeciallyobferued. 

Grapes there are of two forts which I mentioned in the 
merchantable commodities: 

Strabmes there are as good & as great as shofe whjch 
we haue in our Englifh gardens. 

Mulberiet i A^lecrd'S i Hurts or Huirtleberies Juch as wee 

SAcquenummentriL kinde of berries almoft like viitp,ca- 
presbut fbmewhat greater which grow together in clij^ 
iters vpon a plant or herb that is, found in fl>a]ow4v?tcrs; 
being boiled eight or nine hours according to their tini 
arc very good meate and holefome, otherwife if they be 
eaten they will make a marl for the time franticke o$ex- 
tremely ficke» 

There is akind of reed which beareth a feed almoft like 
vnto our rie or wheat, & being boiled is good meate. 

In our trauailes in fome places wee founde wildc p«z,e 
like vnto oiirs in England hut that they werelefle, which 
are alfo good meate. 

Of a kinde of fruite or berrie in forme tf 

THere is a kind of berrie or acbrnc, x>£ which there 
areijuefohs that groWonfeueral kinds of treesjthc 
. one is called Sagate'mener 3 the fccond Ofatfiener s the 
third Tumtuueksner* Thefe kind of aeprns they vie to drie 
vpon hurdles made of reeds withfire vnderneath.aImoft 
alter the maneras we^rym^t in Epglad.WheB^eyarc 

of the f^Jdffl&umaof Vifgmta. 

to be vied they firftwaterthem vntil they be fbft & then 
being fod they make a good viclual } either to.eate fo Am- 
ply ,or els beingaifbpoundedj to make loaiaesor lumpes 
ot bread. Thefe be'alfb the three kinds of which 3 1 laid 
before } the inhabitants vied to make fweet oyle. 

An other fortis caMed 'Sapitmrnener which beingboiled 
or parcheddoth eate and tafte like vnto cheftnuts. "they 

The fifth fort is c^tcdMat^4mme»auki thea- 
corne of their kind of 6akc 9 the, which beeing dr'ed. afte* 
the maner of the firft fortes, and afterward watered they 
boile them,& their feruants or fbmetime the chiefe th& 
lelues,eitherforvarietyor for want of bread* doe eate 
them with their fi(h or flefh, 


D£<*w 3 tn Fome places there are great ftoremeere vn- 
to theieacoaft they are of the ordinarie bignes a? 
ours in England,& fbme lefle : but further vp into 
the countrey where there is better feed they are greater: 
they differ fromours onely in this, their tailes are longer 
and thefhags of their horneslookebackward. 

Cww,Thofethatwehauefeen &althatwe canheare 
«f are of a grey colour like vnto hares: in fbme places 
there are fiich plentie-that all the people of fome townes 
makethem- mantles of thefurre or flue of theskinnes of 
thofe they vfually take. 

Saejnenuckot & MaquSmci twoklndes of fmallbeaftes 
greater then conies whicharevcry-goodmeat. We ne- 
wer fooke any of them our felues ,but fbmetime eate of 
fuch as theinhabitantshad taken &brought vnto vs* 
Squints which are of a. grey c«!bur»wehaue take &eatr 

% 'Beare/ 

A hriefe And true report 

Hears* which are aD of blade colour,The bcares of this 
coimtrcy are good meatjthe inhabitants in time of wia- 
cerdo vie to take & eate manie j(o alio fomtimedidwefc, 
Tbey aire taken commonliein'tbis fort.In fame Hands or 
places-wbere they arejbeing hunted for ,as fooneas they 
hauc fpiall of a man they prefently tfun awaie 5 & then be- 
ing chafedthey clime and get vpthe next tree they can, 
from, whence with arrowesthcyare^hot downe flarke 
dead j or with thofe wounds that they may after eafity be 
kiIled$wefomctimefhottethem' downe with our cake- 

4 haue the names of eight & twenty feuerall fortes of 
beads which I haue heard of to be here and there difper^ 
fed in the coutrie.efpecially in the mainerof which there 
are only, twelue kinds that we haue yet difeouered 3 & of 
thofe'that be good meat we know only them before me- 
tioned/Theinhabitantsfbmtimekilthe£^»&eat him: 
& we fomtime as they came to our hands of their wehet 
or wolwflj Dogges j which I haue not fet downefor goodl 
meatjleaft thatfomcwouldevnderftand my iudgeroent 
therin t6 be more fimplethan needeth J akhoughI.could 
alleage the difference in tafte of thofe kincles'from ours, 
which by fome of our company haue beene experimen* 
ted in both. 


TFrkje ?ockes and Turkic hemes:: Stoctyottes :Tamldgm 
Cranes: Hemes: & in winter great ftoreof Swaattes & 

Geefe.Q? al for'tes;bf foule I haue 'the names in the 
•couritrie langu age offourefcore and fixe of which num- 
ber befides thofe that be named.,we haue taken^eaten, & 
Jiane the pidures as they were there, drawne with the 
names of the inhabitaunts. of feuerall flrange fortes of 


of the mwfiundUndof Virginia. 

water fouIeeight,andfeueteenekindsmoreofbnd foul, 
although wee haue feen and eaten of many more, which 
forwantofleafurethere for thepurpofe couldenotbee 
pi&ured: and after wee are better turnifhedand ftored 
vpon further difcouery,with their ftrange beaftes, fifbe, 
trees, plants, and hearbes, they (hall bee alfo publifhed. 
There are alfo ParatsJFaulcons&L Matlm ^»4,«,which 
although with vs they bee not vfed for meate, yet for o- 
ther caufes I thought good to mention. 


FOr foure moncthesof theyeere,February,March, 
Aprill and May, there are plentie of Sturgeons : And 
alfo in the famemonethes of #«ri»£r,fomeof the 
ordinary bignefle as ours in England, but the moft part 
farfejgreater,ofeighteene,twentieinches,and fome two 
foote in length and better 5 both thefe kindes of fifhein 
thofcmonethes are moft plentifull, andinbeftfeafon, 
which wee foiihde to bee moft delicate andpleaiaunt 

ThefC 2 re a l^° Treates : Porpoifes : Rayes i Oldmiaes.-AdaU 
letrrPtafce:zn& very many other fortes of excellent good 
fifhjwhich we haue taken & eaten,whofe names I know 
not- but in the countrey languages wee haue of tweluc 
forts more the pictures as they were drawn in the coun- 
trey with their names. 

The inhabitants vfe to take thetwojnanerof wayes", 
the one is by a kind of wear made of reedes which in that 
countrey are very ftrong. The other way which is more 
ftrange^s with poles made fharpe at one ende, by fhoo- 
tingtjhem into the fifh after the maneraslrifhmen caft 
dartesj either as they are rowing in their boatcs or els as 

D? they 

$hef are wadinginthe (hallowes for thepurpofc. 

There areaUomrnanyplacesplentieofthefe kindes 
which follow. 

Searcrabfosfixch&s we haue in England. 

Ojftersf omc very great,andfomefmalIsfbme rounde 
and forae of a long fhape : They are founde both in fak 
water and bracki(h;and thofe that we had out of fait wa- 
ter are far bester than the other as in our owne countrey". 

Alfo Mufcles: Scalopes i Periwinkt" ; and Crettifes* 

Seekattauh a kinde of cruftie (hell fifhe which is good 
mcate,about a footc in breadth, hauing a cruftie tayle, 
many legges like a crabj and her eyes in her backe. They 
arefoimdein fliallowesof fajt watersj andfometimeoil 

There are many .Tfrrtgrfit both of Iande and fea kinder, 
their backes & beUiesare (helled very thicke; their headj 
feete, and taile, which are in appearance,feeme ougly as 
though they were members of a fcrpent or venemouss 
butnotwithftanding they are very good meate, as alio 
their egges. Some haue bene foundeof a yard in bredth 
and better. 

And thus haue I made relation of all fortes of vi&uaH 
that we fed vpon for the timewewerein Firgiaia^s^b 
£hc inhabitants thcmfelues,as farre foorth as I knowe 
and can remember or that are Jpetially worthy to bee re- 



of the newfoundlandofVirgtnh. 

ie third and laft part of fuch other 

things as is behoofullfir thofe which [hall 
plant and inhabit to know of j with a defcrip-, 
tion of the nature and manners of the 
people of the countrey. 
Of commodities for building and 
other necejfary vfes. 

Hofe other things which I am more to 
make rehearfall of,arefuch as concerne 
building, and other mechanicall nece£ 
1 farie vfes ; as diuers fortes of trees for 
houfe & (hip timber,and other vfes els: 
; Alfo lime,ftone,and brick 3 lcaft that be- 
ing not mentioned fome might hauc bene doubted of,or 
by fome that are malicious reported the contrary, 

Ofo, there are as faire,ftraight , tall, and as good tim- 
ber as any can be 3 and alfo great ftorc 3 and in fomeplaces 
very great. 

Walnut trees 3 as Ihaue faide before very many, fome 
haue bene feen excellent faire timber of foure & Hue fa- 
dome } & aboue fourefcore foot (freight without bough. 
Firre trees fit for mafts of iTiips 3 (bme very tall & great. 
Kaktockv* kind of trees (b called that are (weet wood of 
which the inhabitans that wereneerevnto vs doecom- 
moly make their boats or Canoes of the form of trowes; 
only with the helpe of fire,hatchets offtones,and fhels; 
we haue known fome fo great being made in that fort of 
one tree thatthey haue carried well at oncc,be- 
iides much baggage:the timber being greatjtal a ftreight> 
ibft 3 light,&yec tough enough I thinkefbefides otherv- 
fes) to be fit alfo for mafts of (hips. 

Cedar & fweet wood good for feelings,Chefts,Boxes, 


Abriefeandtrue report 

Bedfttedes, Lutes, Virginals, and many things els, as I 
haue alfo faid beforc.Somc of our company which haue 
wandered in fome places where I haue not bene,haue 
madecertaine affirmation of Cyprus which for fach and 
other excellent vfes, is alfo a wood of price and no fmall 

Maple ,and alfb mcb-bazJeyivhcxo£ the inhabitants vfe 
to make their bowes. 

Holly a neceffary thing for the makitig of birdlime. 

milowes good for the making of weares and weeles to 
take fifh after the Englifli manner, although the inhabi- 
tants vfe only reedes, which becaufe they arefo ftrong 
as alfb flexible, do feme for thatxurne very welland fur* 

Beech and Afa , good for cafke,hoopes : and if needc 
require,plow workers alfo for many things els. 



Afcopo a kinde of tree very like vnto Lawrell, the barke 
is hoat in taft and fpicie,ic is very like to that tree which 
Monardus defcribethto becCafsia Ligma. of the "Weft 

There are many other ftrange trees whofe names! 
knowe not but in the Virginian language, of which lam 
not nowe able, neither is itfoconuenient for the pre* 
lent to trouble you with particular relation : feeing that 
for timber and other necefiaty vfes I haue named funic j- 
cnt; And of many of the reft but thatthey may be appli- 
ed to good yfe, I know no caufe to doubt. 

Now for Stone,Bricke and Lime,thusit is.Neere vn- 
to the Sea coaft where wee dwelt, there are no kinde of 
ftones to bee found (except a fewe fmall pebbles about 
foure miles oS) but luch as haue bene brought from far- 

of the new found land of Virginia. 

farther out of the maine. Infomeof ourvoiages wee 
jhaue fcene diuers hard raggie ftones, great pebbles, and 
a kindc of grey ftone like vnto marble, of which the in- 
habitants make their hatchets to cleeue wood. Vpon in- 
quiriewee heard that a little further vp intd the Coun- 
trey were of all fortes verie many, although of Quarries 
they are ignorant, neither haue they vie of any ftorc 
whereupon they fhould haue occafion to feeke any. For 
if eueriehoufholdebaueoneortwo to cracke Nuties, 
grinde fbellcs,whet copper,and fbmetimes other ftones 
lor hatchets, they haue enough : neither vfe they any 
digging, but onely for graues about three foote dcepe: 
and therefore no maruaile that they know neither Quaf- 
ries,norlime ftones,which both may bee in places nce- 
yer than they wot of. 

In the mearte time vntill there bee difcouerie of fiiffi- 
cientftoreinfome place or other conuenient, the want 
ofyou which are and fhalbe the planters therein may be 
as well fupplied by Brickc : for the making whereof in di- 
uers places ofthe countrey there is clay both excellent 
good,and plenties and alfobylimernadeofOifter fhels, 
and of others burnt, after the maneras they vfe in the 
lies ofTenet and Shepy, and alfo in diuers other places 
of England : Which kinde oflime is well knowne to bee 
as good as any other. And of Oifter fhels there is plentie 
enough : for befides diuers other particularplaces where 
are abundance, there is one fhallowe founde along the 
coaft, where for the (pace of many miles together in 
Iength,and two or three miles in breadth, the grounde 
is nothing els beeing but halfe a foote or a foote vnder 
water for the rnoft part. 

This much can I lay further more of ftones, that a- 
bout 1 2 o.miles from our fort neere the water in the fide 

E of 

sAbriefi and true report 

ofafullwasfouiidebya Gentleman of our company, a 
great veineof hard raggeftones, which I thought good 

Of the nature and manners of 

the people, 

T rcfteth I fpeake a word or two of the na- 
tural! inhabitants,their natures and maners, 
feauing large difcourfe thereof vntill time: 
more cOriuenient hereafter : nowe onely (o 
farre foorth,as that you may know-how that they in re- 
fpe& of troublingour inhabiting and planting, are riot 
to be feared* but that, they (hall haue caufe bothito feare 
and loue vs,that fhall inhabite with them . 

They area people clothed withloofe mantles made 
of Deere skins,& aprons of the fame rounde about thefr 
middles* all els nakedjof fuch adifference of ftatures on- 
ly as weein Englandj'hauingno edgetooles or weapons 
of yron or fteele to offend vs withall^neither know they 
how to make any:.thofe weapons y they haue, are onlie 
bowes made of"VVitchhazIe,& arrowes ofreedsjflat ed- 
ged truncheons alio of wood about a yard long , neither 
haue they any thing to defied thefelues but targets made 
ofbarksj, and Come armours made of ftic&eswickered to* 
gether with thread. 

Thdrtowpcsarebutfmall, & neeretfce feacoaftbut 
few,fome containing but i cor i 2.houfes: fome a o.the 
preatefl that; we haue feerie haue benebut of 30. houfes: 
if they bewailed it is only done with barks of trees made 
faft to flakes, or els withpoles onely fixed vprightand 
clofeoneby another. 



Their honfes are made of (mall poles made faftat the 
tops in rounde forme after themaner as is vfed in many 
arbories in our gardens of England,in mofttoWnes co? 
ucred with barkes,and in fbme with artificial! mattes 
made of long rufhes; from the tops of the houfes downe 
tothe ground.The length of them is commonly double 
to the breadth jinfome places they are but 12. and 16. 
yardeslong, and mother fomc wee haue feenc of foure 

In fbme places of thecountreyonc onelytowncbe* 
longeth to the gouernment of a vrtroansxx chiefe Lordej 
in other fbme two or three 3 in fome fixej eighth morel 
the^reateft mroaatxhatyst we had dealing with had but 
cighteenetownes in his gouemment^ana able to make 
notaboue feuen or eight hundred fighting men at the 
moft:The1anguage'of euerygouernment is different 
from any other,and the farther they are diftant the grea- 
ter is the difference. 

Their maner of warres amongft themfelues is either 
byfudden furprifing one an other moftcojnonly about 
the dawning of thcdayjor moone lights or els by am- 
tufhesjor fome futtle deuifes : Set battels are very ra^e, 
except it fall out where there are many trees* where ey- 
ther part may haue fbme hope of defence,aftei the deli- 
uerie of euery arrow 5 in leaping behind fbrneorother. 

If there fall out any warres between vs & them . what 
their fight is likely to bce^e hauing aduantages againft 
them fo many maner of waies, as by our difcipline s our 
ftrange weapons and deuifes els j efpecially by ordinan- 
ce '- great and finally may beeafily imagined; by the ex- 
perience we haue had infome placesjtheturninc vp of 
theirheeles againft'vs in running away was their heft de- 

E *, lift 

sAbvitfe andtrtoenfort 

In refpeeYofys,they,are a people pocre, and for want 
of skiH and iudgerhenjiai the knowledge andvfe of our 
things j doe efteemeour trifles before thinges of greater 
value : Notwithstanding in their proper manner consi- 
dering the want of fuch meanes as we haue, they feemc 
very ingenious; For although they haue no fuch tooles, 
nor any fuch crafres, Sciences and artes as-wee; yet in, 
thofe thinges they doe j theyShewe excellence of wit, 
Andbyhowemlich they vpon due consideration Shall 
iinde our manner of knowledges and crafces to exceedc 
theirs in periec\ion, and Speed for doing or executiony 
by fo much the more is it probable that they, Shoulde de_ 
fire our friendships & loue, and haue the greater reSpect 
forpleafing and obeying vs. Whereby maybee hoped 
if meanes of good gouernment bee vSed, that they may 
in fhort time be brought to ciuilitie, and the imbracing 
of hue religion.- 

Some religion they haue dlreadie, which although it 
befarre from the truth, yet beyng asitis,thereis-hope 
it may bee theeafier and Sooner reformed. 

They beleeue that there are many Gods which they 
call Montoac^ but of different fortes and degrees; one 
onelychiefe and great God, which hath bene from aJl 
eternitie. Who as they affirme when hee purpofed 
to make t,he worlde, madefirft other goddes of aprin* 
cipall order to.bee as meanes and instruments to bet v- 
fed in the creation and gouernment to follow j and af> 
tcr the Sunnc, Moone, ancJStarres,as pettie goddes 
and the inftruments of the other order more princi- 
pal . Frft they fay were- made waters, out of which 

bythegodswasmadeaUdiuerfitieof creatures that arc 


of thepewfiuttdhmdof Virginia. 

Pot mankind'they fey awoifian was made firft,whicb 
by the woorkingof one of the goddes^ conceined and 
brought foorth children: Andiniuchiortthey fay they 
had their beginning. 

But how mauie yeeres or ages haue paffed fince, they 
Jay they can make no relatio^hatringno letters nor other 
fuch meanesaswe to keeperecordes of the particulari- 
ties of times paftj but onelie tradition from father to 

They thinke that all' the gods are of humane (hape, 
Srtherforeihey reprefent-themhy images in the formes 
ofmenj which they call Kewafomkonc alone is called 
Kewas\ Them they place in houfes appropriate or tem- 
pies which they 1 call Machlcomuck.? Where they woor- 
fhipjpraiejiing, and make manie times offerings vnto 
them. Infotat Machicommkyfthaxiz feene but on Ke- 
v>as s in fome two 3 and in'other fome threesThe common 
fort thinke them to be alfo gods. 

" They beleeue alfo the^immortalitie of the foule, that 
after this lifeas fbone asthefoule is departed from the 
bodie according to the vvorkes it hath done, it is ey ther 
carried to heauen the habitacle of gods 3 - there to enioy 
erpetttall blifle andhappineifejor els to a great pine or 
lole, which they thinke tohee in the furtheft partes of 
their part of theworldetowardethe funnefet, thereto 
bume contirtualIy:the place they call Pofogujfo. 

For the confirmationof this opinion 3 they tolde mce 
twoftbries of twornen that hadbeen lately dead and re- 
lived againe ; the one happened but few yeres before our 
coinming into the countrey of a wicked man which ha- 
wing beene dead and buried^ the next day the earth of 
(foegrauebeeing feene tomoue, was taken vp againej 
Who made declaration where his foule had beenej, that 

E 3. is 


*A Iriefimdtrue report 

is to faie very neere entring into Popogafo 3 had not otic of 
the godsiauedbim & gaue him leaue to returne againe, 
and teach his friends what they ftiould doc to auoid that 
terrible place of torment. 

The other happened in the fame yeere wee were 
there, but in a towne that was thteefcore miles from vs, 
and it wastolde mee for ftraungenewes that one bee- 
ing dead, buried and taken vp againe as the firft, (hewed 
that although his bodte had lien dead in the graue, 
yethisfoule wasaliue.snd hadtrauailedfarrein along 
broadewaie, on both fides whereof gre we moft deli- 
cate and pleafaunttree$,bearing more rare and excel- 
lent friijtcs theneuer heehad feene before or was able 
to exprcfTe , and at length came to moft braue and 
faire houfes,necre which hee met his father , that had 
beene dead before, who gaue him great charge to goe 
backe againe and fhew his fiiendes what good they were 
to doe to enioy the pleafures of that place, which when 
he had done he fhould after come againe. 

What fubtilty foeuer be in the Wroaxces and Prieftes, 
this opinion worketh lb much in manie of the common 
and fimple fort of people that it maketh them hauegreat 
refpect to their Gouernours, and alfo great care what 
they doito auoid torment after death ,and to enioy blifle; 
although notwirhftandin g there is punifhment ordained 
for malefac1:ours,as ftealers,whoremoongers,and other 
fortes of wicked doers ; fome punifhed with death,fome 
with forfeitures, feme with beating, according to the 
greatnes of the faftes. 

And this is the fumme of their religio jwhich I learned 
by haufng fpecial familiarity with fomc of their prieftes. 
^Wherein they were not fo fure grounded , nor gaue 
uichcredkc to their traditions and ftories but through 


of the newfound UndofVirginU. 

conuerfirig with vs they were brought into greatdoubts 
of their owne,and no fmall admiration of ours,with ear- 
neft defire in manyj to learne more than we" had meanes: 
for want of perfect vtterance in their language to ejjt- 

Moft thinges they fawe with vs, as Mathematicall 
inftrumenrs,'fea compares, the vertue of the loadftone 
in drawing yron, a perfpedtiue glafle whereby was 
fhewed manie ftraiigc fightes, burning glafles, wildc- 
fire woorkes, gunnes , bookes ,{writing and reading, 
ipring docks that feeme to goe of themfelues, and ma- 
nie other thinges that wee had,werefo ftr&ungevnto 
them, and fo fane exceeded their capacities to compre- 
hend the reafon andmeanes how they fhould be made 
and done, that they thought they Were rather the works 
©fgodsthcrtofnien,otattheleaftwife they had bin gi- 
flen and taught vs of the gods. Which ,made manie of 
them to haue fudh opinion ofvs,asthat if they knew not 
the truethiofgod and religion already ,it was rather to be 
jhadfromvsj whom God fo Specially loued then from a 
people that were they found themfelues to 
be in comparison of vs .Whereupon greater credite was 
giuen vnto that we (pake of concerning fuch matters. - 

Manie times andineuerytowne where I came, ac- 
tordingasl was able, I made declaration of the con- 
tentes of the Bible; that therein was fetfoorth the true 
and onelie GOD, and his mightie woorkes, that 
therein was contained the true doctrine of faluation 
through Chrift, with manic particularities of Mira* 
cles and chiefe poyntes of religion, as I was able then 
to vtter, and thought fitte for the time. And al- 
though I toldthem die booke materially & of it felf was 
tiox ofanjefuch verme-asl thought they did conceiue, 


iAhnefe-Andtrue report 

but oncly &eda&rine therein contained; yet wouldm^. 
ny be glad to touch it, to embrace it ,to kiffe it, to holdk 
to theirbrefts and heades, and ftrolcc ooeraU their bodfc 
with itjto fhcwe their hungriedefjrepf that: knowledge 
which was fpoken of. 

The wiroans with whom we dwelt called wir.gwtt^ and 
many of his people would be glad many times to be with 
vs at our praicrs,and many times call vpon vs both in hfs 
owne towne j as alfo in others whither he fometimes ac- 
companied vs jto pray and fing Pfalmes; hoping thereby 
to bee partaker of the fame erre&es which wee by that 
meanes alfo expected, 

Twife this wiroam was fo grieuoufly ficke that he was 
like to die, and as hee laielanguifhing, doubting of anie 
helpe by his owne priciles, and thinking he was in fueh. 
daunger for offending vs and thereby our god,fent for 
fome of vs to praie and bee a meanes to our God that it 
would pleafe him either that he might Hue or after death 
dwell with him in blifle j (b like wife were the rCqueftes o£ 
manie others in the like cafe. 

On a time. alfo when their come began to wither by 
reafbn of a drouth which happened extraordinarily , fea- 
ring that it had come topaflc by reafbn that in fome 
thing they had difpleafed vs ,many woulde come to vs & 
defire vs to praie to our God of England, that he would 
preferue their corne,prornifin g that when it was ripe we 
alfo fhouldbe partakers of the fruite. 

There could at no time happen, any ftrange ficknefle, 
lofles,hurtes,orany other crOfTe vnto them, but that 
they would imputeto vsthe caufe or meanes therof for 
offendi ng or not pleafing vs, 

One other rare and ftrange accident, leauing others, 
will I mention before I ende, which mooued the whole 


of the me fmndlanddf Virginia. 

countreythateithcrknewotheardeofvs, tohauevs in. 
wonderiull admiration, 

There was no towne where we had any fubtile deuife 
pra£tifcdagainfl:vs,Weleauingitvnpunifhedor not re- 
uenged (becaufe wee fought by all meanes poffible to 
win them by gentlenefle) but that within afewdayes af- 
ter our departure from eueriefuch. towne, the people 
began to dievejyfaft^and many in fhort fpace; in fome 
townes about twentie 3 in fomefourtJe,in fome fixtie, & 
in one fixe fcore, which intrueth was verymanie in re- 
ipecl: of their numbers . This happened in no place 
thatweecoulde learne but where wee had bene, where 
they vied fome pra&ifeagainftvs,. and afterfuch time; 
The difeafealfo fo ftrange,thatthey neither knew what 
it was, nothowtocure it* the likeby report of the oldeft 
men in the countrey neuer happened beforejtime out of 
jninde. A thingfpecially obferued by vsas-alfo by the 
oaturallinhabitants themfelues. 

Infbmuch that when fome ofthe inhabitantes which 
were our friends & efpecially the fpiream wingina had ob 
ferued filch effects in foure or Hue towns to follow their 
wicked pra&ifes , they were perfwaded that it was the 
worke of our God through our meanes, and that wee by 
Tiim might kil andflaic whom wee would without wea- 
pons and not comenecrc them* 

And thereupon when it had happened that they had 
vmJcrftandingtljatanyof their enemies had abated vs 
in our iourneyes, hearing that wee had wrought no re- 
iienge with our weaponsj&fearingvponfomccaufethe 
matter fhouldfb reft: did come andintreatevs that w# 
Wouldc bee a meanes to our God thatthey as other? 
that had dealt ill with vs- might in Kke fort dies- alka- 

F as 


as alfotheirs;and hoping furtherrnore that we would do 
fo much at their requefts in refpecl of theftiendfliip we 

Whofe entreaties" although wee (hewed -that they 
wcrevngodlie affirming that our God would not fub- 
iccl him fctfe to anie fuch praiers and requeues of men: 
thatin deede all thinges haue beene and wereto be done 
according to his good pleafure as heJiad ordained : and 
that wetoihew our felues his tijueferuants ought rather 
to make petition for the contrarie, that they with them 
mightliuetogetherwithvs, bee made partakers of his 
truth & feme him in righteoufhes jbut notwitftanding hi 
fuch fortjthat weereferre that as all other thinges jto bee 
done according tohisdiuine will & pleafure, and as by 
his wifedome.he had ordained to be beft. 

Yet becaufe the erred fell out fo fodainly and fhortly 
afteraccordingto their deures,they thought ncuerthe- 
lefle it came to paffe by our meanes,and that wein vfing 
fuch fpeeches vnto them did but diffemble the matter, 
and therefore came vnto vs to giue vs thankes in theiK 
manner that although wee fatisfied them, not in pro- 
mife,yet in deedes and effect we had fulfilled their dc- 

This maruelous accident in all the countrie wrought 
fo ftrange opinions of vs>that forne people could not tet 
whether to think vs gods Or men j and the rather becaufe 
chat all the fpace of their ficknefle^there was no man of 
ours knowne to die y or that was fpecially ficke : they no- 
ted alfo that we had no women amongft vs, neither that 
wedid care for any of theirs. 

Some therefore were of opinion that wee were not 
borne of women 5 and therefore not mortar-but that wee 
were men of an old generation many yeeres pail then a* 


of the new fomiiandof Virginia. 

fen agalne to immortalitie. 

Some wouldelikewife feeme to propbefie that there 
were more of our generation yep to come, to kill theirs 
and take their places, as feme thoughtthepurpofe was 
by that which was already done. 

Thofe that were immediatly to come after vs they i- 
magined to be in the aircyet inuifible & without bodies, 
& that they by our intreaty & for the loue of vs did make 
thepeopletodieinthatfoitastheydidby {hooting in- 
uifible'bnUets into them. 

lb confirme this opinion their phifitionstoexcufe 
their ignorance in curing the difeafe, would not be afha- 
med to fay ,butearneftly make the fimple people beleue, 
that the firings of blood that they fucked out of the ficke 
feodies,were the firings wherewithal! the inuifible bul- 
lets were tied and caft. 

Some alfo thought that we (hot them our felues out 
of our pieces from the place where we dwelt, and killed 
the people ifi any filch towne that nad offended vs as we 
lifted,how farre diftant from vsfbeuer it were. 

And other fome faide that it was the fpeciaH woorlje 
df God for our fakes, as wee our felues haue caufe in 
Come fbrte to thinke no lefle , whatfoeuer fome doe or 
Toaieimagineto the contrarie, fpecially feme Aftro- 
logerslcnowingofthe EclipfcofiheSunne which wee 
f&wthe fame ycere before in our voyage thy therward, 
which vnto them appeared very terrible. And alfo of a 
Cornet which beganne toappeare but a fewdaies be- 
fore the oeginning of the faid fickneffe. But to conclude 
themfroinbeifrg the fpeciall caufes pf fo fpeciall an ac- 
cident, there are farther reafons then Ithinke fit at this 
prefent to bee alkadged. 

Thefe diektopinions I haue fet downe the more at 

Ea, l«Se 

Abriefeanitrue report 

large that it may appearc vnto you that there is good 
hope they may be brought through difcreet dealingand 
gouecnernent to the imbracing ot the truetb, and confe- 
quently to honour,obey ,feare and loue vs. 

And although fome of our companie towardes the 
ende oftbeycare,{hewedthemfelues too fierce, in flay- 
ing forncofthepeo|>le,in fome towns, vponcaufesthac 
on our part,might eafUy enough haue been borne with.- 
all: yet notwithstanding becauie it was on their part iuft- 
ly deferued, the alteration of their opinions generally & 
forthemoftpart concerning vs is the lefle to bee doub- 
ted. And whatfoeuer els they maybe, by carefulnefle of 
our felues neede nothing at all to be feared. in all actions befides 
is to be endeuoured and hoped 5 & of the worft that may 
happen notice to bee taken with confederation, and as 
much as may be efchewed. 

The Conclnjion, 

NO w I haue as Ihopernade relation not of fbfewe 
and fmal things but that the countrcy of men that 
are indifferent & weldifpofed maiebe fufficiently 
liked : If there were no more knowen then I haue menti- 
oned, which doubtlefle and in great reafon is nothing 
to that which remaineth to bee difcouered, neither the 
foiIe,nor commodities. As we haue reafon fo to gather 
by the dirferece we found in our trauails; for although all 
which I haue before fpoke of,haue bin difcouered &.esr- 
perimentednot far firothefcacoaftwherewas our abode 
& raoft of our trauailing : yet fbmtimes as wemade our 
iourneies farther into the maine and countrcyswe found 
the foyle to bee fatters the trees greater and to growe 


of the newfiundiandofUirginia. 

thinners the grounde more firme and deeper mould? 
more and larger champions; finer grafle and as good as 
euer we faw any in England; in fome places rockieand 
farremorehighandhilliegroundimofeplentie of their 
fruites; more abundance of beaftess the-more inhabited 
with people,and of greater pollicie & larger dominions, 
with greater townes and houfes. 

Why may wee not thenlooke for in good hope from 
theinner parts of more and greater plentie, as wellof o- 
ther things, as ofthofe which wee haue alreadie difco- 
uered? Vnto the Spaniardes happened the like in dftco- 
uering the maine of the Weft Indies. The maine alio of 
this countrey of /^^/»^,extendingfome wayes fo many 
hundreds of leagues,as otherwife then by the relation of 
the inhabitants wee haue molt certaine knowledge of, 
where yet no Chriftian Prince hath any poflelfion or 
dealing,cannot but yeeld many kinds of excellent com- 
modities , which we in our difcouerie haue not yet feene. 

Whathopethereiselsto be gathered of the nature 
of the climate,beinganfwerable to the Hand oflapan 3 thc 
land of Chma^PerJia^lury, the Ilandes of; Cyprus and Ca»dj 9 
the South parts of Greece , Italy 3 and Spaine 3 and of many 
other notable and famous countreis, becaufelmeanc 
not to be tedious,I Ieaue to your owne confideration. 

Whereby alfb the excellent temperature of the ayre 
there at all feafbns, much warmer then in England, and 
neuer Co violently hot,as fometimes is vnder & between 
the Tropikesjornere them; cannot bee vnknowne vnta 
youwithout farther relation. 

For the holfomnefle thereof I needetofaybutthus 
much: that for all the want of prouifion,asfirft of Eng* 
lifh victuallj excepting for twentie daies, wee h'ued only 
by drinking water and by the vj&uall of the countrey , of 

F3. which 

Abriefc and true report 

which (brae forts were very ftraunge vnto vs, and might 
haue bene thought tohaue altered our temperatures ira 
fuch fort as to haue brought vs into fbmc grceuous and 
dangerous difeafes:(ec5dly thewant of Englifh meanes, 
for the taking of beaftes,fifhe,and foule, which by the 
help e only orthe inhabitants and their meanes,coulde 
notbeefofuddenlyandea'filyprouidcdfoj: vs,norin lb 
great numbers& quantities, nor of that choife as other- 
wife might haue bene to our better fatisfa&ion and con- 
tentment. Some want alfb wee had of clothes. Further- 
more, in all our trauailes which were rnoft fpecialfand 
often in the time of winter, ourlodgingwasintheopen 
aire vpon the grounde. And yet I fay for all this, there 
drcd and eight J that died all the yeere and that but ae 
the latter ende thereof and vpon none of the aforefaide: 
caufes. For all foure efpecially three were feeble, weake, 
and fickly perfons before euer they came thither, and 
thofe that knew« them much marueyled that they Ji- 
uedfblong beeing in that cafe, or had aduentured to 

Seeing therefore the ayre there is fo temperate and 
holfbme, the fbylefo fertile and yeelding fuch commo- 
dities as I haue before mentioned, the voyage alfo thi* 
ther to and fro beeing fufficiently experimented, tobefe 
perfourmed thrife a yeere with eafe and at any feafbti 
thereof: And the dealing of Sir water Raleigh fb Iiberall 
in large giuing and graunting landethere, asisalreadie 
knowen,withmanyhelpes and furtherances els : (The 
kaft that hee hath graunted hath beene Hue hundred 
acre3toaman onely for the aduenture of hisperfon): 
I hope there remaine no caufe wherby the attion fhoiHd 


of the new found land of Virginia. 

If that thofe which (hall thither trauaile to inhabitd 
and plant bee but rcafonably prouided forthefirftyere 
as thofe are which were tranfported'the laft,andbee- 
ing there doe vfe but that diligence and care as isre- 
qui(ite,andas they may with eale : There is no doubt 
but for the time following they may haue victuals that 
is excellent good and plentie enoughs fome more Eng- 
Kfhe fortes of cattaile alfo hereafter.asfbme hauebene 
before, and are there yet remaining, may and (hall bee 
God willing thither tranfported : Solikcwifeourkindc 
of fruites,rootes ,and hearbes may bee there planted 
and fowed,as (bme haue bene alreadie, and proue wel. 
And in (horctime alfo they mayraife of thofe fortes of 
commodities which I haue fooken of as (hall both en- 
rich themfelucs , as alio others that (hall deale with 

And this is all the fruites of our labours,that I haue 
thought ncceilary to aduertife you of at this prefent: 
what els concerneth the nature and manners of the 
inhabitants of Virginia :The number with the particu- 
larities of the vovages thither made* and of the acti- 
ons of fuch that haue bene by Sir water Raleigh therein 
and there imploded, many worthy to bee remembredj 
as ofthefirftdifcouerersoftheCountrey: of ourGe- 
nerali for the time Sir Richard Greimilei and after his 
departure, of our Gouernour there Matter RafeLane m y 
with diuers other directed and imployed vnder theyr 
gouernement : Of the Captaynes and Matters of the 
voyages made fince for tranlportationj of the Gouer- 
nour and affiftants of thofe alredie tranfported,as of ma- 
ny pcrfons,accidents,ahd thinges els, I haue ready in a 
difcourfe by it felf in maner ofa Chronicle according to 



to the eourfe of times, and when time (hall bee thought 
conuenientftattbe'alfo publiflied,. 

Thusreferringiny relation to yourfauourablc con* 

ftra£tions,expe&inggood fiicceflcof the aftion^from 

hiro which is to be acknowledged the authour and go-* 

uernour not only of this but of all things els,I 

take my leaue of you jthls moneth of 

February. I 5 % 8. 


Bq.fag. I Jin. lO.fertTaHgomocfyahgtr&uleyTaitgoutQe* 
The reft ifaty be the dfireete Reader may eajtlj amend* 

iii m In I 

i i i i hi i h m